If it won't be simple, it simply won't be. [source code] by Miki Tebeka, CEO, 353Solutions

Thursday, June 14, 2007

timeit

Sometimes speed is important. The timeit modules lets you find how fast you are.
from timeit import Timer

def fast_fib(n):
if n < 2:
return 1

a, b = 1, 1
for i in range(n - 1):
a, b = b, a + b

return b

def slow_fib(n):
if n < 2:
return 1

return slow_fib(n - 1) + slow_fib(n - 2)


INDEX = 20
TIMES = 100

fast_timer = Timer("fast_fib(INDEX)", "from __main__ import fast_fib, INDEX")
slow_timer = Timer("slow_fib(INDEX)", "from __main__ import slow_fib, INDEX")

print "slow:", slow_timer.timeit(TIMES) / TIMES
print "fast:", fast_timer.timeit(TIMES) / TIMES
On my machine this gives:

fast: 5.11884689331e-06
slow: 0.00996325016022
However sometimes you to send your function some more complex data, plus you don't want to add too much timing code into the top level of your module.
One way to do it is:
def benchmark():
benchmark.index = 20
timer = Timer("fast_fib(benchmark.index)",
"from __main__ import fast_fib, benchmark")
num_runs = 100

print timer.timeit(num_runs) / num_runs

def main(argv=None):
if argv is None:
import sys
argv = sys.argv

from optparse import OptionParser

parser = OptionParser("usage: %prog [options] MESSAGE")
parser.add_option("--benchmark", help="run benchmark",
dest="benchmark", action="store_true", default=0)

opts, args = parser.parse_args(argv[1:])

if opts.benchmark:
benchmark()
raise SystemExit()

if len(args) != 1:
parser.error("wrong number of arguments") # Will exit

# Do main program stuff here
try:
print fast_fib(int(args[0]))
except ValueError:
raise SystemExit("error: %s - bad number" % args[0])

if __name__ == "__main__":
main()

Wednesday, June 06, 2007

reStructuredText

I like to write documentation in a textual format. This way it's easy to view the changes in a regular diff tool and you can use almost any text editor to view the source.

The down side that you usually need to compile the documentation - no WYSIWYG.

I used to like LaTex. It produces excellent results out-of-the-box. And the math support is second to none.

However, reStructuedText has two advantages:
1. You can read the source directly and understand it
2. It produces good HTML (Yes, I know about latex2html)

You can also produces good PDF using rst2latex and then pdflatex.

A short document example:

===========
Hello World
===========
:Author: Miki Tebeka <miki@mikitebeka.com>
:Date: $Date: 2007-06-05 21:02:04 -0700 (Tue, 05 Jun 2007) $

.. contents::

Chapter 1
=========
In the beginning ...

Sub Chapter 1
-------------
There was LaTex_ [#]_

Chapter 2
=========
And then there was reST_

::
  
   That can have preformatted
   text


----

.. _LaTex: http://tug.org
.. _reST: http://docutils.sf.net/rst.html

.. [#] Which is still very good

.. comment: vim: ft=rst spell


The results using this makefile are:
%.html: %.txt
 rst2html.py --stylesheet style.css $< $@

%.pdf: %.tex
 pdflatex $<

%.tex: %.txt
 rst2latex.py $< $@

all: hw.html hw.pdf

clean:
 rm -f *.aux *.log *.pdf *.html *.out

fresh: clean all

.PHONY: all clean fresh



HTML


PDF


Final Notes


There are other such tools: markdown, asciidoc and others. I happen to like reST.

I use the following stylesheets (can't remember the URL I got them from):
style.css
/*
:Author: Fred L. Drake, Jr.
:date: $Date$
:version: $Revision$

This stylesheet combines some ideas from the two stylesheets
distributed with docutils and enhances them for Zope 3 documentation.
*/

@import url(default.css);

div.document {
  margin: 0px 1em 1em 4em;
  padding: 0px; }

div.document a {
  text-decoration: none; }

div.document a[href] {
  text-decoration: underline; }

div.document h1.title {
  background-image: url("zope3logo.gif");
  background-position: -6px -4px;
  background-repeat: no-repeat;
  font-size: 150%;
  min-height: 50px; }

div.document div.section {
  margin: 0px 0px 1.5em 0px; }

div.document div.section h1 {
  background-color: rgb(230,230,230);
  margin-left: -2em;
  padding: 0.2em;
  padding-left: 0.35em;
  padding-top: 0.35em;
  /* This grey underline make this more visually distinctive on LCD
     monitors, which often don't have enough contrast. */
  border-right: thin solid rgb(180,180,180);
  border-bottom: thin solid rgb(180,180,180); }

div.document div.section div.section div.section h3 {
  margin-bottom: -0.5em; }

div.document h1 {
  font-family: sans-serif;
  font-size: 135%; }

div.document h2 {
  font-family: sans-serif;
  font-size: 120%; }

div.document h3 {
  font-family: sans-serif;
  font-size: 105%; }

div.document h4 {
  font-family: sans-serif;
  font-size: 100%; }

div.document h5 {
  font-family: sans-serif;
  font-size: 100%; }

div.document h6 {
  font-family: sans-serif;
  font-style: italic;
  font-size: 100%; }

div.document hr {
  width: 75%; }

div.document .literal .pre {
  background-color: white;
  font-family: lucidatypewriter, "lucida typewriter", sans-serif; }

div.document .literal-block {
  border: thin solid rgb(180,180,180);
  font-family: lucidatypewriter, "lucida typewriter", monospace;
  font-size: 80%;
  padding: 0.5em; }

div.document table.table {
  margin-left: 2em;
  margin-right: 2em; }

div.document table.table thead {
  background-color: rgb(230,230,230); }

/* docutils uses the "option" class with both "col" and "span"
   elements, so we have to be explicit here */
div.document .option-list span.option {
  font-weight: bold; }

div.document .option-list kbd {
  font-family: inherit; }


default.css
/*
:Author: David Goodger
:Contact: goodger@users.sourceforge.net
:date: $Date$
:version: $Revision$
:copyright: This stylesheet has been placed in the public domain.

Default cascading style sheet for the HTML output of Docutils.
*/

div.document .first {
  margin-top: 0 }

div.document .last {
  margin-bottom: 0 }

div.document a.toc-backref {
  text-decoration: none ;
  color: black }

div.document dd {
  margin-bottom: 0.5em }

div.document div.abstract {
  margin: 2em 5em }

div.document div.abstract p.topic-title {
  font-weight: bold ;
  text-align: center }

div.document div.attention,
div.document div.caution,
div.document div.danger,
div.document div.error,
div.document div.hint,
div.document div.important,
div.document div.note,
div.document div.tip,
div.document div.warning,
div.document div.admonition {
  margin: 2em ;
  border: medium outset ;
  padding: 1em }

div.document div.attention p.admonition-title,
div.document div.caution p.admonition-title,
div.document div.danger p.admonition-title,
div.document div.error p.admonition-title,
div.document div.warning p.admonition-title {
  color: red ;
  font-weight: bold ;
  font-family: sans-serif }

div.document div.hint p.admonition-title,
div.document div.important p.admonition-title,
div.document div.note p.admonition-title,
div.document div.tip p.admonition-title,
div.document div.admonition p.admonition-title {
  font-weight: bold ;
  font-family: sans-serif }

div.document div.dedication {
  margin: 2em 5em ;
  text-align: center ;
  font-style: italic }

div.document div.dedication p.topic-title {
  font-weight: bold ;
  font-style: normal }

div.document div.figure {
  margin-left: 2em }

div.document div.footer,
div.document div.header {
  font-size: smaller }

div.document div.sidebar {
  margin-left: 1em ;
  border: medium outset ;
  padding: 0em 1em ;
  background-color: #ffffee ;
  width: 40% ;
  float: right ;
  clear: right }

div.document div.sidebar p.rubric {
  font-family: sans-serif ;
  font-size: medium }

div.document div.system-messages {
  margin: 5em }

div.document div.system-messages h1 {
  color: red }

div.document div.system-message {
  border: medium outset ;
  padding: 1em }

div.document div.system-message p.system-message-title {
  color: red ;
  font-weight: bold }

div.document div.topic {
  margin: 2em }

div.document h1.title {
  text-align: center }

div.document h2.subtitle {
  text-align: center }

div.document hr {
  width: 75% }

div.document ol.simple, ul.simple {
  margin-bottom: 1em }

div.document ol.arabic {
  list-style: decimal }

div.document ol.loweralpha {
  list-style: lower-alpha }

div.document ol.upperalpha {
  list-style: upper-alpha }

div.document ol.lowerroman {
  list-style: lower-roman }

div.document ol.upperroman {
  list-style: upper-roman }

div.document p.attribution {
  text-align: right ;
  margin-left: 50% }

div.document p.caption {
  font-style: italic }

div.document p.credits {
  font-style: italic ;
  font-size: smaller }

div.document p.label {
  white-space: nowrap }

div.document p.rubric {
  font-weight: bold ;
  font-size: larger ;
  color: darkred ;
  text-align: center }

div.document p.sidebar-title {
  font-family: sans-serif ;
  font-weight: bold ;
  font-size: larger }

div.document p.sidebar-subtitle {
  font-family: sans-serif ;
  font-weight: bold }

div.document p.topic-title {
  font-weight: bold }

div.document pre.address {
  margin-bottom: 0 ;
  margin-top: 0 ;
  font-family: serif ;
  font-size: 100% }

div.document pre.line-block {
  font-family: serif ;
  font-size: 100% }

div.document pre.literal-block, pre.doctest-block {
  margin-left: 2em ;
  margin-right: 2em ;
  background-color: #eeeeee }

div.document span.classifier {
  font-family: sans-serif ;
  font-style: oblique }

div.document span.classifier-delimiter {
  font-family: sans-serif ;
  font-weight: bold }

div.document span.interpreted {
  font-family: sans-serif }

div.document span.option {
  white-space: nowrap }

div.document span.option-argument {
  font-style: italic }

div.document span.pre {
  white-space: pre }

div.document span.problematic {
  color: red }

div.document table {
  margin-top: 0.5em ;
  margin-bottom: 0.5em }

div.document table.citation {
  border-left: solid thin gray ;
  padding-left: 0.5ex }

div.document table.docinfo {
  margin: 2em 4em }

div.document table.footnote {
  border-left: solid thin black ;
  padding-left: 0.5ex }

div.document td,
div.document th {
  padding-left: 0.5em ;
  padding-right: 0.5em ;
  vertical-align: top }

div.document th.docinfo-name,
div.document th.field-name {
  font-weight: bold ;
  text-align: left ;
  white-space: nowrap }

div.document h1 tt,
div.document h2 tt,
div.document h3 tt,
div.document h4 tt,
div.document h5 tt,
div.document h6 tt {
  font-size: 100% }

div.document tt {
  background-color: #eeeeee }

div.document ul.auto-toc {
  list-style-type: none }

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